Sea cucumber project
The project implemented by Sergei Maslennikov within the framework of the Skolkovo Foundation (the Marine Biotechnopark company is a resident of the biomedical cluster in the field of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Industry) is aimed at developing a technology for obtaining highly productive trepang lines based on modern genetic breeding methods. In particular, it is planned to identify genetic markers for the separation of individuals and, as a result of crossing and selection, to bring out lines with positive qualities (survival, growth rate, productivity).
This is, first of all, genetic research, this is a set of genomic technologies in terms of extending genetic technologies to the process of sampling, analysis of samples - marking.
Trepangs have no external differences: visually, the male is indistinguishable from the female, the adults from the juveniles. Trepangs even have such a phenomenon as negative growth: an invertebrate can lose weight and decrease in size regardless of age. “Only genomic technologies can select high-quality individuals. Our Skolkovo project is dedicated to their application for finding good manufacturers. Crossbreeding of elite producers will allow you to get trepang fry with good survival rates. - Both in nature and with artificial breeding of trepang, there is a massive death of fry. If more viable individuals are selected, the severity of the problem can be significantly reduced. Obviously, the more the trepang survives, the more profitable the breeding business will become. ”
One of the developmental stages of the trepang larva. Image from a scanning electron microscope.
The first to draw attention to the beneficial properties of the sea cucumber was in ancient China, in whose cuisine it has been used for a couple of millennia. Vladivostok is located on the shore of the bay, where the world's best trepang lives. Relying on its scientific potential and favorable geographical position, Primorsky Krai can, using the renewable resources of the sea, create a unique base for sustainable development of the region.
All sea areas off the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan and the south of the Sea of Okhotsk are in favorable climatic conditions for the cultivation and reproduction of the most expensive commercial aquatic organisms on the domestic and foreign markets.
Confidence in this is the starting point of the project to create a network of marine biotechnology clusters, biotechnoparks.
The Institute of Marine Biology and the Far Eastern Federal University are participating in the project.
At the moment, a feasibility study has been prepared for the creation of large projects for marine aquaculture in the coastal waters of the Russian Far East. The results are presented at many venues, including the Eastern Economic Forum.
The Marine Biotechnopark is aimed at obtaining high-value biological raw materials, their integrated processing and integrated water area management.
The network of biotechnoparks will be able to provide new growth points for the development of the coastal economy and consolidation of the population in the territories of the Far East. The production potential of the territories and water areas allows reaching the volume of about 3 million tons of products per year (marine biological raw materials, invertebrates and algae) and creating about 1 million jobs.
In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”
pool with juvenile trepang.
Water filtration system in the Far Eastern sea cucumber cultivation workshop in one of the seaside enterprises.
Pools for keeping fry at one of the seaside mariculture enterprises.
The list of objects for breeding and reproduction can be represented as follows: bivalve molluscs (scallops, mussels, oysters, anadara, spisula), echinoderms (sea urchins and sea cucumbers), crustaceans (commercial crabs, craboids, shrimps, chilims, mantis shrimp) and macrophytes. The most popular species, for which the technologies of breeding and reproduction have been developed, are the seaside scallop, Pacific mussel, giant oyster, and seaweed. Two species, the scallop and the giant oyster, are among the top ten world leaders in shellfish cultivation. The Far Eastern sea cucumber and red king crab are among the most expensive commercial invertebrate species. Japanese kelp is the most highly productive species of plants cultivated on Earth. The yield of Japanese kelp reaches 200-300 tons of wet weight per hectare, which corresponds to 50-65 tons of dry weight. According to FAO, the volume of industrial cultivation of Japanese kelp in the world exceeds 4.5 million tons per year. Thus, we can say that the coastal areas of the Russian Far Eastern seas have an extremely beneficial set of species for cultivation and reproduction.